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SimulACRUM: A cognitive architecture for modelling complex task performance and error

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Bibliographics

Grant, S. (1996) SimulACRUM: A cognitive architecture for modelling complex task performance and error. In: Proc. 8th European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics (ECCE 8), Granada, Spain. September 10 - 13.

Authorship

Simon Grant
(when presented; until October 1996 at)
City University
Northampton Square
London EC1V 0HB
(now in Liverpool)

Previously, and work done at,
European Commission
Joint Research Centre
Institute for Systems, Informatics and Safety
Ispra (VA)
Italy

Abstract

Three examples from the literature demonstrate the kind of phenomena that need to be covered by cognitive models of error. A novel cognitive architecture for the modelling of human behaviour and error is here outlined. It is based on classes, and instances, of entities, and of situations, represented in a contextually modular way as task units. Crucially, there are two kinds of transition between task unit instances: in known situations it is rule-based, while in unusual cases it is governed by matching the current state representation against normal state envelopes of 'usual', expected states.

Keywords

Cognitive simulation models; cognitive architecture; error; complex systems; cognitive ergonomics.

Contents

Introduction

EXAMPLES OF ERRORS FOR MODELLING

An Unexpected Maintenance Event

Three Mile Island

A Well-Studied Air Accident

General points

CONSTRUCTING A COGNITIVE MODEL

DEVELOPING AN ARCHITECTURE

SimulACRUM

Background

Theory

Behaviour

Structures of the architecture

APPLICATION OF SIMULACRUM TO EXAMPLES

WHAT SimulACRUM IS NOT

CONCLUDING COMMENTS

REFERENCES

Anderson, J. R. (1993). Rules of the Mind. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Cacciabue, P. C., Decortis, F., Drozdowicz, B., Masson, M., & Nordvik, J.-P. (1992). COSIMO: a cognitive simulation model of human decision making and behavior in accident management of complex plants. IEEE Trans. Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 22 (5), 1058-1074.

Grant, S. (1994). Modeling complex cognition: Contextual modularity and transitions. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on User Modeling, pp 157-162, Hyannis, MA, USA. The MITRE Corporation.

Hollnagel, E. (1993). Human Reliability Analysis, Context and Control. London: Academic Press.

Monnier, A et al. (1993). Rapport relatif à l'accident survenu le 20 janvier 1992 près du Mont Sainte-Odile (Bas-Rhin) à l'AIRBUS A320 immatriculé FGGED exploité par la Compagnie Air Inter. Ministère de l'equipement, des transports et du tourisme, France.

Newell, A. (1990). Unified Theories of Cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Reason, J. (1990). Human Error. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Woods, D. D., Johannesen, L. J., Cook, R. I., & Sarter, N. B. (1994). Behind Human Error: Cognitive Systems, Computers and Hindsight. CSERIAC, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio.


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