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Grant, S. (2006) Frameworks of competence: common or specific? . Presented at: TEN Competence Workshop, Sofia, Bulgaria, March 2006.
Appears in: Koper, R., & Stefanov, K. (Eds.) (2006). Learning networks for lifelong competence development. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. March, 30-31, 2006. Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompentence Conference.. Pages 111-116.
Independent consultant; JISC-CETIS Portfolio SIG
Examples of what are known as frameworks of skill or competence suggest a range of requirements which might be met by such frameworks, for organisations, individuals and educational institutions. However, there are two opposing tendencies in framework development: towards different, context-specific frameworks and towards common, shared frameworks. The approach to resolving this, suggested here and prefigured in the JISC-funded SPWS project, is to make a clear distinction between the common and specific approaches, focusing agreement onto common frameworks for reference, while allowing divergence between specific frameworks for application and implementation. This may resolve the tension and allow both common and specific frameworks to flourish. Pointers are given for working towards this. Standards in the area need further development. E-learning tools, including e-portfolio systems, need to build in support for this two-component approach to frameworks of competence.
Skill, competence, frameworks, e-learning tools, e-portfolio systems
 Grant, S., Marshall, A. & Strivens, J. (2005). Implementation of a portable skills framework. In: A. Méndez-Vilas, B. González-Pereira, J. Mesa González, J.A. Mesa González (eds), Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies (2005), FORMATEX, Badajoz, Spain. Available at: http://www.formatex.org/micte2005/96.pdf via: http://www.formatex.org/micte2005/book.htm
 Towards a European qualifications framework for lifelong learning. Commission staff working document. Brussels, 8.7.2005 Available at: http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/policies/2010/doc/consultation_eqf_en.pdf via http://europa.eu.int/comm/education/policies/educ/eqf/index_en.html
 Grant, S. (2005). SPWS: Introducing the Skills Meta-Framework. SPWS project deliverable. http://www.elframework.org/projects/spws/SPWS-meta-framework-final.pdf/view is as delivered; http://www.inst.co.uk/clients/jisc/SPWSintro.doc is a maintained version.
 Pepper, S. (2000). The TAO of Topic Maps. Available at: http://www.ontopia.net/topicmaps/materials/tao.html
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